Cairo is the capital of Egypt and, with a total population in excess of 16 million people, one of the largest cities in both Africa and the Middle East. It is also the 19th largest city in the world, and among the world's most densely populated cities.
Situated on the River Nile, Cairo is famous for its own history, preserved in the fabulous medieval Islamic city and Coptic sites in Old Cairo. The Egyptian Museum in the center of town is a must see, with its countless Ancient Egyptian artifacts, as is shopping at the Khan al-Khalili bazaar. No trip to Cairo would be complete, for example, without a visit to the Giza Pyramids, and to the nearby Saqqara Pyramid Complex, where visitors will see the first step pyramid ever built in Egypt.
Egypt is in north-eastern Africa with its capital located in its largest city, Cairo. Egypt also extends into Asia by virtue of holding the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is bordered by Israel and the Gaza Strip to the north-east, by Jordan to the east, by Sudan to the south and by Libya to the west. The country is bounded by the Mediterranean and Red Seas and geographically dominated both by the Nile River and its fertile well-watered valley, and by the Eastern and Western deserts.
Egypt is largely a desert, an extension of the great Sahara that bands North Africa.Generally, the summers are hot and dry and the winters, moderate.Egypt consists of vast desert plateau interrupted by the Nile valley and delta, along with the Sinai peninsula. Portions of the Nile River valley are bounded by steep rocky cliffs, while the banks are relatively flat in other areas, allowing for agricultural production.
Egypt's economy depends mainly on agriculture, media, petroleum exports, and tourism. Egypt has a developed energy market based on coal, oil, natural gas, and hydro power. Substantial coal deposits are in the northeast Sinai, and are mined at the rate of about 600,000 metric tons per year. Oil and gas are produced in the western desert regions, the Gulf of Suez, and the Nile Delta. Egypt has huge reserves of gas, estimated at 1,940 cubic kilometres. Foreign Direct Investment into Egypt has increased considerably in the past few years, exceeding $6 billion in 2006, due to the recent economic liberalization measures taken by minister of investment Mahmoud Mohieddin..
Cairo is 2 hours ahead of GMT.